The Chronology of Islamic Calendar

The Chronology of Islamic Calendar

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The Chronology of Islamic Calendar 

The Muslim era  begins with the great event of the Hijrah of the Prophet of Islam Muhammad (SAW) from Makkah to Madinah. The Muslim calendar is LUNAR and its months are determined by the various positions of the moon. In Islam, there are 12 months in every year as Allah (SWT) says in the Glorious Qur’an:

The number of months in the sight of Allah is twelve (in a year) so ordained by Him the day He created the heaven and earth……………(Q9:36).

  And the holy Prophet (SAW) says:

From Abu Bakara (RA)says: I heard the holy Prophet(SAW)says:

“You are to know that time will always change and will come back to its origination since when Allah (SWT) created heavens and earth. Indeed, a year consists of twelve months,” Ahmad related this.

Each month of the Islamic calendar is either 30 or 29 days depending on the position of the moon.

As this Islamic year has ended i.e.1440 AH and now we are into the new Islamic year 1441 AH, may Allah (SWT) with His countless blessings enable us to see the end of this year successfully, Ameen.

We the Muslims more especially here in Nigeria, have a great task ahead of us in view of prevalent poverty and insecurity which is taking us backward in our daily life and religious life. May Allah (SWT) come to our aid, Ameen.

The Islamic months are as follows:

  1. RABI’UL AWWAL.
  2. RABI’UL THANI.
  3. JUMADA AWWAL.
  4. JUMADA THANI.
  5. SHA’ABAN.
  6. DHUL QIDAH.
  7. DHUL HAJJI.

The names of the months of Islamic calendar are either derived from seasonal events, Arabian customs or religious events; unlike the Gregorian calendar or Christian calendar in which they derived their names from idols or Roman gods or goddesses.

 

Chronological events

The chronological events of the months of the Islamic calendar are as follows:

  1. AL MUHARRAM: This is the first month of the Islamic calendar and it is among the four sacred months in Islam. It is prohibited to wage war in it. Allah (SWT) says, “among the months, four are sacred, they are Al muharram, Rajab, Dhul-Qidah and Dhul- Hijjah.The first day of this month is declared a public holiday.

And all Muslims are encouraged to fast on this day. And also its 9th and 10th days are also very important to observe fasting in for non-pilgrims. The days are called TASU’A and ASHURA; it is meritorious to fast in them. Moreover, Prophet Muhammad (SAW) and his companions migrated from Makkah to Madinah on the 1st day of Muharram. It is meritorious to fast on its Mondays and Thursdays and 13, 14, and 15 of its days.

 

  • Safar: This is the second month of the Islamic Calendar. Safar means ‘withdrawal.’ It is the month in which Arabs withdraw among themselves from their destinations and proceeded to either war or trading to different countries. It is also meritorious to fast on its Mondays and Thursdays and 13,14 and 15 of its days.
  1. Rabi’ulAwwal: The third month of the Islamic calendar. Rabi’ulAwwal is the month of the birth of the holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW). Muslims all over the world celebrate the birthday of the holy Prophet (SAW) on its 12th Also it is meritorious to fast on its Mondays in this month. Rabi’ulAwwal means the month of honouring farms. The Arabs stay in their destinations and engage in farming. It is meritorious to fast on its Mondays and Thursdays and 13, 14 and 15 of its days.

 

Rabi’ulThani: The fourth month of the Islamic calendar. It also has the same meaning with Rabi’ulAwwal and it is meritorious to fast on its Mondays and Thursdays and 13,14 and 15 of its days.

 

  • Jumada Awwal: The fifth month of the Islamic calendar. It derived its name from seasonal situation, which is harmattan; it is also meritorious to fast on its Mondays and Thursdays and 13,14 and 15 of its days.

 

  • Jumada Thani: The sixth month of the Islamic calendar. It has the same meaning with Jumada Awwal. It is also meritorious to fast on its Mondays and Thursdays and 13,14 and 15 of its days.
  1. Rajab: The seventh month of the Islamic calendar. Rajab is among the four sacred months in Islam. It is also recommended to fast on its Mondays and Thursdays and 13, 14 and 15 of its days.
  2. Sha’aban: The eighth month of Islamic calendar. This month is the month of the holy Prophet (SAW) hence, the holy Prophetis reported to have observed most of its days on voluntary fasting because of its meritorious reward. All Muslims are highly encouraged to observe fasting in this month at least, in its first 20 days. The fifteenth of this month is the day of devotion and meditation. Sha’ aban means dispersal or withdrawal; it was the month Arabs dispersed from their homes and proceeded to war and trading. It is meritorious to fast on its Mondays and Thursdays and13, 14 and 15 of its days.

 

  • Ramadan: The ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and the most important and greatest month in Islam. It has the following meritorious rewards.

. It is the month of Allah (SWT).

. It is the month of fasting throughout its days.

. In this month the Glorious Qur’an was revealed.

. In this month there is one night which is better than 1, 000 nights in other months.

. It’s the month of forgiveness, compassion and salvation from hell fire to all lucky Muslims by the Most High, Allah (SWT). Ramadan means ‘Ramz which is hot or to burn; it is the month in which the weather is hot.

  1. Shawwal: The tenth month of the Islamic calendar and the first day of Shawwal is considered a public holiday, because in it Muslims all over the world celebrate the Eid el-Fitr (in order to show the successful completion of Ramadan period). It is also highly encouraged to fast on its days at least for six days. This is reported by the holy Prophet (SAW) to have observed the six days in the month. It is meritorious to fast on its Mondays and Thursdays and 13, 14, and 15 of its days.

 

  1. Dhul-Qidah:­­­The eleventh month of the Islamic calendar, Dhul-Qidah is also among the four sacred months in Islam. It is the month in which intending pilgrims get prepared for Hajj in the coming month. It is highly encouraged to fast on its Mondays and Thursdays and 13, 14 and 15of its days
  2. Dhul-Hajj: The last and final month of the Islamic calendar, Dhul-Hajj is also among the four sacred months in Islam and has the following meritorious rewards.

. Its first days up to the tenth day are sacredhence Muslims are highly encouraged to fast on its 1st to 9th days which is considered as Arafat Day. It is meritorious to fast on its Mondays and Thursdays for no-pilgrims.

And finally I hope and pray that this piece of mine will be useful to all the Muslim Ummah around the world. And I pray to Allah (SWT) to guide, assist and help the Ummah around the world, Ameen.

Massallam,

Your brother in Islam

Abubakar Mustapha Dada

Imam GoronDutse Remand Home Masjid

08039657746,08053376911 Email:abubakarmustaphadada@gmail.com

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